# DS&A

Data Structures and Algorithms

## Booleans

Feb 052018

Boolean is a type of data, with only two possible values: true and false.

• In Python, the type `bool` has values `True` and `False`.
• In Java, the type `boolean` has values `true` and `false`.

Almost every programming language has Booleans, because they’re necessary for the checks, comparisons and other logical conditions in if/else statements and loops.﻿(1)

## Memory and Pointers

Feb 052018

Computer programs use variables and data structures to store data in memory.﻿(1) A data structure is a scheme for representing values of some type in memory; before we can understand, analyse and design data structures, we need to understand memory.

## Binary Numbers

Feb 052018

Using multiple bits to represent an integer requires deciding what the bits mean. A simple scheme for representing numbers could be to represent e.g. the integer value 3 by using three 1s, like so:

## Ones and Zeros

Feb 052018

Programmers deal with many types of data: most programming languages have integers, booleans, floating point numbers, strings, lists, and more. The word “type” has a specific meaning: each value has a type. In Python the value `1` has the type `int`, and the value `'Hello, world!'` has the type `str`. In Java the value `1` has the type `int`, and the value `"Hello, world!"` has the type `String`.

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